Pathway analysis identifies altered mitochondrial metabolism, neurotransmission, structural pathways and complement cascade in retina/RPE/ choroid in chick model of form-deprivation myopia
RNA sequencing analysis has demonstrated bidirectional changes in metabolism, structural and immune pathways during early induction of defocus induced myopia. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether similar gene pathways are also related to the more excessive axial growth, ultrastructural and elemental microanalytic changes seen during the induction and recovery from form-deprivation myopia (FDM) in chicks and predicted by the RIDE model of myopia.Archived genomic transcriptome data from the first three days of induction of monocularly occluded form deprived myopia (FDMI) in chicks was obtained from the GEO database (accession # GSE6543) while data from chicks monocularly occluded for 10 days and then given up to 24 h of normal visual recovery (FDMR) were collected. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) software was used to determine enriched pathways during the induction (FDMI) and recovery (FDMR) from FD. Curated gene-sets were obtained from open access sources.Clusters of significant changes in mitochondrial energy metabolism, neurotransmission, ion channel transport, G protein coupled receptor signalling, complement cascades and neuron structure and growth were identified during the 10 days of induction of profound myopia and were found to correlate well with change in axial dimensions. Bile acid and bile salt metabolism pathways (cholesterol/lipid metabolism and sodium channel activation) were significantly upregulated during the first 24 h of recovery from 10 days of FDM.The gene pathways altered during induction of FDM are similar to those reported in defocus induced myopia and are established indicators of oxidative stress, osmoregulatory and associated structural changes. These findings are also consistent with the choroidal thinning, axial elongation and hyperosmotic ion distribution patterns across the retina and choroid previously reported in FDM and predicted by RIDE.