OBJECTIVE:Advances in the field of metabolomics and the concomitant development of bioinformatics tools constitute a promising avenue towards the development of precision medicine and personalized profiling for numerous disease states. Studies in animal models have strengthened this concept, but the application in human subjects is scarce. METHODS:Utilizing high-throughput metabolomics, we have analyzed the metabolome levels of human serum and skeletal muscle in the morning and evening in response to divergent nutritional challenges in order to identify unique signatures present in serum and muscle. RESULTS:We reveal dynamic daily variation of human metabolome unique to serum and muscle. The overall effect of nutritional challenges on the serum and muscle metabolome results in a profound rewiring of morning-evening metabolic profiles in human participants in response to the timing and type of dietary challenge. CONCLUSION:We highlight time-of-day and meal-composition dependence of reprogramming of human metabolome by nutritional challenges.