The spectrum of gluten-related disorders includes coeliac disease (CD), wheat allergy (WA) and the suggested entity of non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). An increasing number of the world's population are avoiding gluten due to the assumption of health benefits and self-diagnosed gastrointestinal and/or extra-intestinal symptoms. Unlike CD and WA, NCGS is a relatively new entity with an unknown prevalence and mechanisms, complicated by recent literature suggesting that gluten is not the only food component that may trigger symptoms experienced by this group of patients. The term 'non-coeliac wheat sensitivity' has been proposed as a more accurate term, allowing inclusion of other non-gluten wheat components such as fructans and amylase-trypsin inhibitors. There is inconsistent evidence when evaluating the effects of a gluten challenge in patients with suspected NCGS and there is a need for a standardised procedure to confirm the diagnosis, ultimately enabling the optimisation of clinical care. The present review will give an overview of the different gluten-related disorders and discuss the most recent scientific evidence investigating NCGS.