Design, development, and evaluation of the Maternal Outcomes and Nutrition Tool (MONT) Academic Article uri icon


  • Suboptimal nutrition has been largely associated with poorer perinatal outcomes. However, an inability to compare data between biologically and geographically diverse cohorts has complicated determination of the role of diet in such conditions. The aim of this paper is to describe the design, development, and evaluation of the Maternal Outcomes and Nutrition Tool (MONT), a novel cross-cultural digital dietary data collection tool. The tool was modelled on previously validated food frequency questionnaires and designed for exclusive administration in the digital environment, featuring minimal language and emphasis on images. Participants were recruited by both passive and active means. A total of 502 women were recruited; descriptive statistics were used to describe the cohort. Pregnant women constituted the majority of subjects recruited (n = 376, 74.9%), 63% of which were nulliparous. Women were recruited from 13 ethnicities and 20 countries of birth. Of the 341 women who commenced the surveys (68%), 114 submitted complete datasets (33.5%). Maintenance and recruitment costs equated to $5.64 per completion. Total processing and analysis time for the pilot dataset equated to 12 s per survey. The MONT was used successfully by women from a variety of continents and cultures and proved to be practical and economical in terms resource management.

publication date

  • 2019