BACKGROUND:Chronically ill children are at increased risk of poor learning outcomes. Knowledge of the predictors of learning outcomes for this group of people is important to inform the development of education supports that stand the best chance of being effective. This study explored the child, family, and school risk and protective factors during the child's transition to elementary school (aged 6-7 years) that were associated with learning outcomes when children were aged 10-11 years for both children with and without a chronic illness. METHODS:Data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were used. Predictor variables were entered into separate multivariate regression models for children with and without a chronic illness. RESULTS:The strongest predictors of learning outcomes were the child's approach to learning, a consistent parenting style, and family socioeconomic position and were common for both children with and without a chronic illness but strongest for children with a chronic illness. CONCLUSION:A child's approach to learning and a consistent parenting style during the period of the child's transition to elementary school are important and potentially modifiable factors that are predictive of academic performance in later childhood. These factors are particularly relevant for children with a chronic illness, their parents/caregivers, teachers both hospital and school based, and pediatricians and can be used to inform interventions.