The aim of the study was to investigate the difference in response to a motor imagery task between individuals with and without painful temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). The participants were 24 adults with and without TMD (TMD and control group, resp.). A set of photographic images of the profile view of a person's head and neck and a hand and a foot were presented in a random order. The set consisted of six different orientations with rotations of each image at 0, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 degrees and included left and right representations. The participants were required to view the image and make a decision as to whether it was a left or a right side presented, that is, mental rotation (MR) task. Data were collected on 48 tasks (including left and right) at each orientation for each body part. Reaction times (RTs) for correct answers and accuracy in making the left or right judgements were recorded. The RT was slower in the TMD group than in the control group. The RT for the profile image was slower than those for the hand and foot images. For images that were 180 degrees, the RT was slower and the accuracy was lower than those for five of the other image orientations. The judgements made about the 180-degree rotated image were more inaccurate compared to images of all other orientations among all types of stimuli.