AtPAP2 is a tail-anchored protein in the outer membrane of chloroplasts and mitochondria Academic Article uri icon


  • To date, Arabidopsis purple acid phosphatase 2 (AtPAP2) is the only known plant protein that is dual-targeted to chloroplasts and mitochondria by a C-terminal targeting signal. Using in vitro organelle import and green fluorescence protein (GFP) localization assays, we showed that AtPAP2 is located on, but not imported across the outer membrane (OM) of chloroplasts and mitochondria and exposed its N-terminal enzymatic domain to the cytosol. It was also found that a short stretch of 30 amino acids (a.a.) at the C-terminal region (a.a. 615-644) that contains a stretch of 18 hydrophobic residues, a WYAK motif and 8 hydrophilic residues is sufficient for dual-targeting. Mutation of WYAK to WYAE had no effect on dual-targeting ability suggesting that the charge within this flanking region alone is not an important determinant for dual-targeting.   


  • Sun, Feng
  • Carrie, Chris
  • Law, Simon
  • Murcha, Monika W
  • Zhang, Renshan
  • Law, Yee Song
  • Suen, Pui Kit
  • Whelan, James
  • Lim, Boon Leong

publication date

  • August 2012