Mitochondrial components dynamically change in response to environmental and developmental cues. However, the regulatory pathways that underlie these changes are largely unknown. A global analysis of changes in mitochondrial components at the transcript, protein and metabolite levels was undertaken, to gain a greater insight into how mitochondrial functions are regulated and respond to various internal or external cues. At the transcript level, large-scale changes in groups of genes suggest the presence of co-regulatory mechanisms for these components. Furthermore, the pathways that regulate these changes appear to be integrated into regulatory pathways that alter a variety of functions in cells. However, the changes in transcripts are not always observed at the protein or the metabolite level. This is likely to be due to post-transcriptional levels of regulation and also the fact that in-depth profiles, which have been obtained for transcripts from a variety of studies, are currently not available for proteins and metabolites. Thus, while transcripts for genes give us a picture of what the cells are 'thinking' in relation to mitochondrial components, some of these responses may be lost in translation.