The disulfide relay system of the mitochondrial intermembrane space has been extensively characterized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It contains two essential components, Mia40 and Erv1. The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana contains a single gene for each of these components. Although insertional inactivation of Erv1 leads to a lethal phenotype, inactivation of Mia40 results in no detectable deleterious phenotype. A. thaliana Mia40 is targeted to and accumulates in mitochondria and peroxisomes. Inactivation of Mia40 results in an alteration of several proteins in mitochondria, an absence of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CSD1), the chaperone for superoxide dismutase (Ccs1) that inserts copper into CSD1, and a decrease in capacity and amount of complex I. In peroxisomes the absence of Mia40 leads to an absence of CSD3 and a decrease in abnormal inflorescence meristem 1 (Aim1), a β-oxidation pathway enzyme. Inactivation of Mia40 leads to an alteration of the transcriptome of A. thaliana, with genes encoding peroxisomal proteins, redox functions, and biotic stress significantly changing in abundance. Thus, the mechanistic operation of the mitochondrial disulfide relay system is different in A. thaliana compared with other systems, and Mia40 has taken on new roles in peroxisomes and mitochondria.