Risk Factors for Violence and Relational Aggression in Adolescence Academic Article uri icon


  • Analyses examined risk factors for seventh-and ninth-grade youth categorized as nonoffenders, physically violent, relationally aggressive, and both violent and relationally aggressive. Bivariate and multivariate results showed that relationally aggressive youth were elevated on most risks above levels for nonoffenders but lower than those for youth who were violent alone or violent in combination with relational aggression. Youth who were both relationally aggressive and violent did not differ from those who were violent alone on most risk factors examined. Peer, individual, and family risks were among the strongest predictors.


  • Herrenkohl, Todd I
  • McMorris, Barbara J
  • Catalano, Richard F
  • Abbott, Robert D
  • Hemphill, Sheryl A
  • Toumbourou, John W

publication date

  • April 2007