HpaA is considered to be an effective protective antigen for vaccination against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Oral immunization with HpaA significantly decreases bacterial colonization in H. pylori infected mice. In this study, we investigated whether subcutaneous or intranasal immunization with HpaA could protect against H. pylori infection. Mice immunized subcutaneously with HpaA in Complete Freund's adjuvant, but not mice intranasally immunized with HpaA in CpG adjuvant acquired protection against H. pylori infection. However, intranasal immunization with immunodominant epitope peptides in CpG adjuvant protected mice against H. pylori infection, and immunodominant epitope peptides stimulated stronger Th1 responses and mediated more robust protection against H. pylori infection than subdominant ones. Our results suggest that the length of a candidate antigen is critical for particular vaccination routes, and that immunodominant epitope peptides are promising candidates for protection against H. pylori infection through nasal vaccination.