Following formulation of a new definition for SIDS, a workshop was convened in Canberra Australia, in March 2004, by SIDS and KIDS, Australia. Attendences included forensic and pediatric pathologists representing major institutions from all Australian States and Territories. The issues of the adoption of a uniform definition of SIDS and a standardised autopsy approach were discussed. The workshop recommended adoption of the San Diego definition of SIDS as the sudden unexpected death of an infant under one year of age, with onset of the fatal episode apparently occuring during sleep, that remains unexplained after a thorough investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy and review of the circumstances of death and the clinical history. In addition the workshop undertook to develop autopsy guidelines as national standards for the performance of infant autopsies.