Delinquency, School Context, and Risk Factors in India, Australia, and the United States: Implications for Prevention Academic Article uri icon


  • There is a dearth of research on delinquency, school context, and risk factors across developed and developing nations. Using representative samples and matched surveys, we examined delinquency among cohorts in Mumbai, India (N = 3,717); Victoria, Australia (N = 1,842); and Washington State (WA), United States (N = 1,828). We used multivariate Poisson hierarchical linear modeling. Risk factor and delinquency levels varied across sites. Delinquency clustered within certain schools, particularly in Mumbai. Community disorganization exhibited an association with delinquency as a school-level context effect in Mumbai and Victoria. Peer delinquency, sensation seeking, and poor family management exhibited cross-nationally consistent associations with delinquency. Programs that target schools, the clustering of problem behaviors, and cross-nationally consistent risk factors should be considered internationally.


publication date

  • 2018