BACKGROUND:Diet has long been associated with a risk of insulin resistance and poor glycemic control. We sought to investigate the association between food groups and indices of glycemic control in adults without type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. METHODS:During 2001 - 2002 we randomly enrolled 1514 men (18-87 years old) and 1528 women (18-89 years old) without evidence of cardiovascular disease from the Attica area of Greece. Of them, 118 men and 92 women were excluded from the present analysis due to a history of diabetes mellitus (type 2). Fasting blood glucose and insulin levels were measured, while dietary habits were evaluated through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS:Red meat consumption was positively associated with hyperglycemia (p = 0.04), hyperinsulinemia (p = 0.04), and HOMA levels (p = 0.03), even after adjusting for BMI and various other potential confounders. The intake of fruits, vegetables, legumes, yogurt and other dairy products was not associated with levels of glycemic control indices. CONCLUSIONS:A higher consumption of red meat and its products may aggravate hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in non-diabetic people.