Hematopoietic reconstitution (HR) after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation is characterized by a delay of 8 and 12 days for recovery to safe levels of neutrophils and platelets even in patients with the most rapid engraftment. We postulate that a further enhancement in the rate of HR may be achieved by transplanting with an expanded postprogenitor cell population that can provide mature functional cells within days of infusion. In this study we investigated the ability of combinations of hematopoietic growth factors (HGF) to generate nascent granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM) in a 7-day suspension culture of peripheral blood CD34+ cells. A combination of 6 HGF, ie, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1), IL-3, IL-6, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage-CSF (GM-CSF), and stem cell factor (SCF), was identified as the most potent combination of those tested. Subsequently, large volume suspension cultures of CD34+ cells from the same patients using the same 6-factor combination were established and monitored for 21 days. An exponential rate of nucleated cell production (mean 1,324-fold increase) occurred during culture. CFU-GM production paralleled nucleated cell production until day 10, peaked at day 14 (mean 66-fold increase), and was then maintained until day 21. Cells produced in culture were predominantly neutrophil precursors and developed normally as assessed by morphology, immunophenotype, and superoxide generation. This stroma-free, cytokine-driven culture system can achieve a degree of amplification, which suggests the feasibility of ex vivo culture of hematopoietic progenitor cells as an adjunct to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.