Haemopoietic reconstitution was achieved in a patient with acute non-lymphoblastic leukaemia (ANLL) in relapse who was autografted with blood-derived stem cells collected during very early remission. The patient received a myeloid progenitor cell dose of 230 x 10(4) CFU-GM/kg body weight. Engraftment was evident in the bone marrow 7 days post-graft. Normal neutrophil and platelet counts were attained by day 14 and blood counts remained normal thereafter. An overshoot in peripheral blood haemopoietic progenitor levels occurred at the end of the second week, presumably the progeny of a family of early progenitor cells. The completeness of haemopoietic reconstitution is further illustrated by the satisfactory nucleated cell and myeloid progenitor cell yield when a bone marrow harvest was performed 4 1/2 months post-graft. Seven months post-graft, the patient remained in complete remission with normal blood counts and bone marrow cellularity, although haemopoietic progenitor levels were slightly reduced. The rapid recovery minimises aplasia-related risks and suggests that such autografting can be carried out safely in first remission. We propose that autografting using very early remission blood cells is a new therapeutic option for patients with acute ANLL.