OBJECTIVE:To examine fatal road transport crashes of residential aged care facility (RACF) residents to determine crash characteristics and risk factors. METHODS:A cross-sectional study of a retrospective national cohort of RACF resident deaths notified to Australian coroners. INCLUSION CRITERIA:death occurred between 1 July 2000 and 30 June 2013; mechanism classified as 'transport injury event'; and completed coronial investigation. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted on crash characteristics and risk factors. RESULTS:Thirty-eight deaths met the inclusion criteria. Median age of deceased RACF residents was 84 years, and gender was equally distributed. Men were most frequently pedestrians (n = 14, 37%), and women were most frequently motor vehicle passengers (n = 14, 37%). Road user factors contributed to two-thirds of crashes (n = 25, 66%), with 'failure to yield' (n = 17, 45%) most frequent. CONCLUSION:Reducing fatal crashes of RACF residents requires effective road safety strategies and public awareness of risks for this increasing and vulnerable population.