The distribution of two common TaqI restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene were determined in 271 Italian-born and 170 Greek-born migrants to Melbourne, Australia. A much smaller number were examined for the EcoNI RFLP of the same gene. Allele frequencies of the TaqI A RFLP exhibited the least variation in both ethnic groups, and no significant regional heterogeneity in allele or genotype frequencies of either TaqI RFLP was detected for Greece or Italy. There was no difference between Italians and Greeks for the TaqI A polymorphism and the variability at the B RFLP was of borderline significance. Comparisons with other Caucasian populations revealed that allele frequencies of all three CETP RFLPs are remarkably uniform within Caucasians, with the TaqI B polymorphism being the most variable.