Current stem cell protocols for ischemic heart disease are limited by the small numbers of cells that can be obtained by bone marrow aspirate. To increase myocardial delivery of bone marrow stem cells in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease (CIHD), we used granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) for bone marrow mobilization of CD34+ cells, enabling intracoronary infusion of large numbers of CD34+ stem cells. Patients with CIHD (n = 5) demonstrated significantly reduced numbers of CD34+ cells mobilized by G-CSF in comparison to age-matched controls. Sustained reduction in anginal symptoms and improvement in quality of life scores was seen in all patients following infusion of cells. Moreover, mean collateral flow grade at 12-month follow-up angiography significantly improved, indicating sustained myocardial neovascularization. No proliferative retinopathy was induced and no in-stent restenosis seen. However, in two patients with documented increase in collateral flow, complications arose, one developing an acute coronary syndrome and the other a lentigo maligna. These results demonstrate the feasibility of G-CSF mobilization, leukapheresis and intracoronary transfer of CD34+ stem cells in patients with CIHD, but longer-term studies are required to ensure that this protocol is safe and effective.