Using Metaphors to Assess Anticipatory Perceptions of Personal Death Academic Article uri icon


  • The Revised Death Fantasy Scale (RDFS) is an 18-item measure based on metaphors of personal death. It was constructed to assess psychological aspects of contemplating personal death, at levels of awareness less conscious than those tapped by conventional self-report measures. It contains two subscales: Positive Metaphors and Negative Metaphors. In several studies the RDFS has shown evidence of reliability and validity. The scale may be potentially useful in health-related research and in the training and support of individuals whose work is related to death and dying.


  • McLennan, Jim
  • Stewart, Catherine A
  • Pollard, Annabel C
  • Anastasios, Jane
  • Akande, Adebowale
  • McLennan, Lisa J

publication date

  • May 1997