Commercial preparations of mikamycin have been shown to act as both inhibitors of mitochondrial protein synthesis and respiration. These preparations are shown to consist of two major streptogramin components (mikamycin A and mikamycin B) and a number of minor components. The major streptogramin components which inhibit mitochondrial protein synthesis in vitro are without effect in vivo due to whole cell impermeability to these compounds. A minor antimycin A-like component is the active compound in mikamycin preparations which inhibits growth of yeast cells on ethanol. The site of this inhibition is at the level of respiratory Comples III. The mitochondrial [mik 1-r] mutation confers resistance to this minor growth inhibitory component and cross resistance to antimycin A. For clarity the designation mik 1 has therefore been renamed ana 1 to denote the mitochondrial determinant conferring resistance to antimycin A. Genetic and physical mapping studies localise the ana 1 determinant in the region of mitochondrial DNA specifying cytochrome b. It is proposed that the ana 1 locus is part of a gene specifying a membrane component of Complex III.