Counts of Fasciola spp. eggs in faeces and measurements of antibody concentration to the excretory/secretory antigens of Fasciola spp. by ELISA were related to the numbers of flukes in the livers of 92 cattle killed in the abattoirs of Hanoi City, Vietnam. In this population, about 22% of the cattle had no flukes, another 22% had between 1 and 10 flukes, 44% between 11 and 100 flukes and 12% had more than 100 flukes in their livers. Of the 14 animals less than 2 years of age, only three were infected. At 2 years of age the mean number of flukes per liver was 10 whereas at 3 years and older, the mean varied between 60 and 80 flukes. Prevalence of infection was 78.3%. No eggs of Fasciola spp. were detected in the faeces of one third of infected cattle and 60% of the counts were less than 100 eggs per gram. The sensitivity of the egg counting method was 66.7% and specificity 100%, overall accuracy was 73.9%. Corresponding values for the ELISA method were 86.1, 70 and 82.6%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values for the egg counting method were 100 and 45.5% and for the ELISA method were 91.2 and 58.3%, respectively.