Infection of ruminants by Fasciola spp continues to cause large economic losses worldwide. Recent results from several laboratories have demonstrated that animals can be significantly protected against infection by vaccination with defined Fasciola antigens. Apart from reducing fluke burdens, some vaccines can elicit a concurrent reduction in parasite egg production. The expectation of a commercially feasible vaccine that might also reduce parasite transmission in the field is now realistic, although major hurdles still exist. Here, Terry Spithill and John Dalton review the results of several recent vaccine trials and discuss the future prospects for vaccine development.