The potential of GST as a vaccine candidate against liver fluke infection in ruminants was studied by vaccinating sheep (n = 9) with GST purified from adult worms of Fasciola hepatica and challenging with 500 F. hepatica metacercariae. The immunization induced a high antibody response to GST in contrast to the poor or undetectable response to this Ag observed in naturally infected sheep. Throughout the trial, the progress of the fluke infection was monitored by measuring RBC hemoglobin levels, the extent of liver damage and the fecal egg output in the sheep. This analysis indicated that a subpopulation (n = 4) of the GST vaccinated animals exhibited no anemia, reduced liver damage and a lower mean fecal egg count relative to the infected control group suggesting a lower fluke burden in these animals. Worm burdens in the livers of the GST vaccine group (107 +/- 22) were 57% lower than in the infected control group (250 +/- 25). The subpopulation of the GST vaccine group demonstrated a 78% reduction in mean worm burdens relative to the control group. These results show that GST of adult F. hepatica is a novel Ag that can significantly protect sheep against liver fluke infection. The results suggest that the immune response to GST is directed to the juvenile worm reducing the number of worms that can establish in the liver of the vaccinated animals.