OBJECTIVE: To determine whether undertaking a swimming program in sedentary women during pregnancy would improve maternal fitness without adverse fetal consequences. METHODS: Prospective observational investigation of healthy sedentary pregnant women participating in a monitored swimming program. RESULTS: Twenty-three women attended swimming sessions from 16 to 28 weeks of gestation resulting in increasing distances swum and improved aerobic fitness as measured by physical work capacity (PWC170) (p = 0.003). Resting maternal heart rate decreased (p = 0.041) and resting systolic (p = 0.092) and diastolic (p = 0.971) blood pressures remained unchanged over gestation. The mean fetal heart rates decreased with advancing gestational age (p = 0.001), consistent with normal physiology. Non-stress tests and umbilical artery systolic/diastolic ratios were similar before and after swimming sessions, providing evidence that fetal well-being was unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: A structured swimming program in sedentary pregnant women increases maternal fitness without any alteration in maternal and fetal well-being.