The most commonly reported reading profile for children with a high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) is one of intact decoding combined with reduced reading comprehension. Whether or not the variables that predict decoding and reading comprehension for children with a HFASD are exactly the same as those identified for a non-ASD population is unknown. Therefore, the ability of cognition, phonological processing, oral language, and vision to predict decoding and reading comprehension was investigated. Regression analysis revealed that cognition, phonological processing, and syntax predicted decoding and reading comprehension for the HFASD and non-ASD groups. One notable difference was that semantics predicted literacy for the non-ASD children but not their HFASD peers.