PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of working memory, processing speed and verbal comprehension with FAS performance in individuals who had sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS AND PROCEDURE: Sixty-three patients with a TBI were grouped according to the presence of impaired verbal fluency performance and then compared on a number of cognitive and demographic variables. RESULTS: Following a TBI, working memory and processing speed had the greatest influence on verbal fluency performance. For those individuals who have not sustained a TBI, education, verbal intelligence, working memory and speed of information processing were related to FAS performance. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the study indicate that FAS performance was related to verbal intelligence, working memory ability, attention and speed of information processing. The results further suggest that different variables are related to FAS performance following a TBI as compared with control group performances.