Evaluated the utility of neuropsychological testing in predicting academic outcome in children 1 year following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Fifty-one school age children who were admitted to hospital after TBI were assessed with a battery of neuropsychological measures at 3 months postinjury. Academic achievement was assessed at 3 and 12 months postinjury. The neuropsychological battery included intelligence testing and measures of memory, learning, and speed of information processing. Academic outcome was assessed in terms of post-TBI changes in reading, spelling, and arithmetic; changes in teacher ratings of school performance; and change in school placement. According to logistic regression analysis, change in placement from regular to special education at 1-year post-TBI was predicted by injury severity and by neuropsychological performance at 3 months post-TBI. Findings suggest that neuropsychological testing is useful in identifying children with special educational needs subsequent to TBI.