Bcl-2 family members bearing only the BH3 domain are essential inducers of apoptosis. We identified a BH3-only protein, Bmf, and show that its BH3 domain is required both for binding to prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins and for triggering apoptosis. In healthy cells, Bmf is sequestered to myosin V motors by association with dynein light chain 2. Certain damage signals, such as loss of cell attachment (anoikis), unleash Bmf, allowing it to translocate and bind prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins. Thus, at least two mammalian BH3-only proteins, Bmf and Bim, function to sense intracellular damage by their localization to distinct cytoskeletal structures.