Postprandial lipemia represents a risk factor for chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the effect of dietary fat on the plasma lipidome in the postprandial period.The objective of this study was to assess the effect of dairy fat and soy oil on circulating postprandial lipids in men.Men (40-60 y old, nonsmokers; n = 16) were randomly assigned in a crossover design to consume 2 breakfast meals of dairy-based or soy oil-based foods. The changes in the plasma lipidome during the 4-h postprandial period were analyzed with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and included 316 lipid species in 23 classes and subclasses, representing sphingolipids, phospholipids, glycerolipids, and sterols.Nonparametric Friedman tests showed significant changes in multiple plasma lipid classes, subclasses, and species in the postprandial period after both dairy and soy meals. No difference was found in triglyceridemia after each meal. However, 6 endogenous lipid classes increased after dairy but decreased after soy (P < 0.05), including ether-linked phospholipids and plasmalogens and sphingomyelin (not present in soy), dihexosylceramide, and GM3 ganglioside. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol were not affected by the soy meal but were significantly elevated after the dairy meal (8.3% and 16%, respectively; P < 0.05).The changes in postprandial plasma phospholipids in men relate to the diet composition and the relative size of the endogenous phospholipid pools. Despite similar lipemic responses as measured by changes in triglyceride concentrations, the differential responses to dairy and soy meals derived through lipidomic analysis of phospholipids suggest differences in the metabolism of soybean oil and dairy fat. The increased concentrations of plasmalogens, with potential antioxidant capacity, in the postprandial period after dairy but not soy meals may represent a further important difference in the response to these sources of fat. The trial was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as ACTRN12610000562077.