A review of gaze entropy as a measure of visual scanning efficiency Academic Article uri icon


  • While the concept of entropy has been applied to gaze analysis, it is unclear what aspects of visual scanning it measures. In this review, we first outline gaze control as a complex system of spatial prediction. Second, we provide a brief introduction to the concept of entropy within the context of information theory as the foundation for gaze entropy measures; with a specific focus on equations for Shannon's entropy and conditional entropy. The application of these equations to gaze data is described as stationary gaze entropy (SGE) and gaze transition entropy (GTE) respectively. Third, we present an updated model of gaze orientation and propose an adaptable definition of GTE as a measure of visual scanning efficiency that underlies overall gaze dispersion measured by SGE. Finally, we review studies that have utilised GTE and SGE to assess visual scanning and discuss their results in relation to our proposed definitions and associated hypotheses. Methodological limitations in gaze entropy measures are discussed and suggestions provided to improve interpretability and generalisability of future studies.

publication date

  • 2019