Paul Segond was a French surgeon who was in practice at the end of the 19th century. A prodigious anatomist, scientist, and surgeon in his day, he is best known for his treatise on the origin of traumatic hemarthrosis of the knee following injury. In this detailed description of the anatomy of the anterolateral aspect of the knee, he describes "a pearly, resistant, fibrous band that is placed under extreme tension when the knee is forcefully rotated internally," which has more recently been described as the anterolateral ligament or a capsular thickening contributing to the anterolateral complex of the knee. His work goes on to speculate about the role of this structure in controlling internal rotation of the knee. The original study was published in French in 1879. Although this work is widely cited, one must question whether many of the citing authors have actually had the opportunity to read it. As such, we sought to unlock this treasure by translating the original study into English and exposing this illuminating, forward-thinking and historical tour de force to the broader orthopaedic community.