Purpose: To determine the effects of sit-to-stand exercise programs on patient-related outcomes in people with physical impairments due to health conditions.Methods: This review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and was registered prospectively. Seven electronic databases were systematically searched for relevant articles. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to screen the titles and abstracts of articles identified using the key search terms of sit-to-stand and exercise. Only randomized controlled trials were included. The methodological quality of papers was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool.Results: A total of eight trials were included. A meta-analysis was conducted using four of the trials that focused on patients with neurological conditions. There was moderate-quality evidence that sit-to-stand exercise programs improve sit-to-stand performance, but no evidence from another meta-analysis that sit-to-stand training improved balance for patients with neurological conditions. There was also no evidence from individual trials that positive changes occurred in the outcomes of gait speed and distance, lower limb muscle strength, falls, or participation.Conclusions: Sit-to-stand training could be a useful intervention when patients have limited sit-to-stand function and the aim of treatment is to improve this performance.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONSit-to-stand training could be a useful intervention for patients when the aim is to improve sit-to-stand performance.Sit-to-stand training may not be a useful intervention when the aim is to improve other functions such as balance.