Culture and Self: Are There Within-Culture Differences in Self Between Metropolitan Areas and Regional Cities? Academic Article uri icon


  • Although differences in self-conception across cultures have been well researched, regional differences within a culture have escaped attention. The present study examined individual, relational, and collective selves, which capture people's conceptions of themselves in relation to their goals, significant others, and in groups, comparing Australians and Japanese participants living in regional cities and metropolitan areas. Culture, gender, and urbanism were found to be related to individual, relational, and collective selves, respectively. Australians emphasized individual self more than Japanese, women stressed relational self more than men, and residents in regional cities regarded collective self as more important than their counterparts in metropolitan areas. These findings provide support for the tripartite division of the self and suggest a need to construct a culture theory that links self and societal processes.


  • Kashima, Yoshihisa
  • Kokubo, Teruyoshi
  • Kashima, Emiko S
  • Boxall, Dianne
  • Yamaguchi, Susumu
  • Macrae, Kristina

publication date

  • July 2004