Chronic exposure to household indoor smoke and outdoor air pollution is a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality. The majority of these deaths occur in low and middle-income countries. Children, women, the elderly and people with underlying chronic conditions are most affected. In addition to reduced lung function, children exposed to biomass smoke have an increased risk of developing lower respiratory tract infections and asthma-related symptoms. In adults, chronic exposure to biomass smoke, ambient air pollution, and opportunistic exposure to fumes and dust are associated with an increased risk of developing chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer and respiratory infections, including tuberculosis. Here, we review the evidence of prevalence of COPD in people exposed to non-cigarette smoke. We highlight mechanisms that are likely involved in biomass-smoke exposure-related COPD and other lung diseases. Finally, we summarize the potential preventive and therapeutic strategies for management of COPD induced by non-cigarette smoke exposure.