This study investigated the effects of a contoured, prefabricated foot orthosis and a flat insole on plantar pressure and tibial acceleration while walking in defence boots. Twenty-eight adults walked along an 8-metre walkway in a: (i) defence boot (control condition), (ii) defence boot with a flat insole, and (iii) defence boot with a contoured foot orthosis. Plantar pressure data were collected using the pedar-X in-shoe system and tibial accelerations were measured with an accelerometer. In relation to plantar pressure under the rearfoot, the contoured foot orthosis, compared to the defence boot, decreased peak pressure and maximum force, and increased contact area. Under the medial midfoot, the contoured foot orthosis and flat insole increased peak pressure, maximum force and contact area. Under the medial forefoot, the contoured foot orthosis and flat insole increased maximum force. Under the lateral forefoot, the contoured foot orthosis and flat insole increased contact area, with the flat insole also increasing maximum force. In relation to tibial acceleration, the contoured foot orthosis, compared to the defence boot, decreased tibial peak positive acceleration. These findings provide novel biomechanical evidence for the effects of contoured foot orthoses in defence boots.