Chromosome arrangements have been studied in metaphase and interphase somatic cells and in sperm of many animal species, but there are conflicting data and it is still not clear whether chromosomes are arranged randomly or non-randomly. We used chromosome painting to reveal the positions of chromosomes in marsupial sperm. Marsupials are ideally suited for these studies because they have only a few large chromosomes. Here, we show that chromosomes occupy fixed positions in the immature and mature sperm of Sminthopsis crassicaudata. We suggest that the non-random arrangement of chromosomes in marsupial sperm may be important in establishing chromosome arrangement and patterns of gene activity within the developing embryo.