We mapped 15 human X-chromosome markers in the common brush-tailed possum, Trichosurus vulpecula (Kerr), which represents the Australian marsupial family Phalangeridae. In situ hybridization was used to localize highly conserved human X-linked genes to chromosomes of T. vulpecula diploid lines. Ten genes located on the long arm of the human X (human Xq genes) all mapped to the possum X chromosome. However, all five genes located on the short arm of the human X (human Xp genes) mapped to autosomes. These findings confirm our previous work, which showed that the X chromosome in macropodid and dasyurid marsupials bears all the human Xq genes but none of the human Xp genes studied. This suggests that the marsupial X is highly conserved, but its gene content reflects that of only part of the eutherian X, a result consistent with our hypothesis that an autosomal region was added to the X early in eutherian divergence.