Monotreme sex chromosomes - implications for the evolution of amniote sex chromosomes Academic Article uri icon


  • In vertebrates, a highly conserved pathway of genetic events controls male and female development, to the extent that many genes involved in human sex determination are also involved in fish sex determination. Surprisingly, the master switch to this pathway, which intuitively could be considered the most critical step, is inconsistent between vertebrate taxa. Interspersed in the vertebrate tree there are species that determine sex by environmental cues such as the temperature at which eggs are incubated, and then there are genetic sex-determination systems, with male heterogametic species (XY systems) and female heterogametic species (ZW systems), some of which have heteromorphic, and others homomorphic, sex chromosomes. This plasticity of sex-determining switches in vertebrates has made tracking the events of sex chromosome evolution in amniotes a daunting task, but comparative gene mapping is beginning to reveal some striking similarities across even distant taxa. In particular, the recent completion of the platypus genome sequence has completely changed our understanding of when the therian mammal X and Y chromosomes first arose (they are up to 150 million years younger than previously thought) and has also revealed the unexpected insight that sex determination of the amniote ancestor might have been controlled by a bird-like ZW system.


publication date

  • 2009