Marsupial x eutherian cell hybrids would be very useful for studies of mammalian genetics and cell biology. A critical step in the formation of such hybrids is the fusion of cells to form heterokaryons. We have examined many different combinations of marsupial and eutherian cells for their ability to fuse, and we have found that all combinations yielded heterokaryons, but with different frequencies, depending on the cell types used. Ranked in order of decreasing ability to fuse with eutherian cells, the marsupial cell types were; established lines, primary diploid fibroblasts and lymphocytes. In all fusion experiments there was a marked preference for the formation of homokaryons compared with heterokaryons. It was possible to control the numbers and types of heterokaryons formed by varying the input ratio of parental cells.