This retrospective population-based survey examined current patterns of care for patients with recurrent glioblastoma (rGBM) who had previously undergone surgery and post-operative therapy at original diagnosis. The patients were identified from the Victorian Cancer Registry (VCR) from 2006 to 2008. Patient demographics, tumour characteristics and oncological management were extracted using a standardised survey by the treating clinicians/VCR staff and results analysed by the VCR. Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival (OS) at diagnosis and progression were calculated. A total of 95 patients (48%) received treatment for first recurrence; craniotomy and post-operative treatment (38), craniotomy only (34) and non-surgical treatment (23). Patients receiving treatment at first progression had a higher median OS than those who did not (7 versus 3 months, p<0.0001). All patients progressed after treatment for first progression with 43 patients (45%) receiving treatment at second progression. To our knowledge this is the first population-based pattern of care survey of treatment for rGBM in an era where post-operative "Stupp" chemo-radiation is standard. First and second line therapy for rGBM is common and associated with significant benefit. Treatment generally includes re-resection and/or systemic therapy.