OBJECTIVES:To investigate whether five-weeks of concentric (CON) or eccentric (ECC) hamstring strength training have different effects on recovery from sprint running, eccentric strength and architecture of the biceps femoris long head (BFLH). DESIGN:Cohort study. METHODS:Thirty males (age, 22.8±4.1y; height, 180.1±6.4cm; weight, 85.2±14.6kg) were allocated into either a CON or ECC group, both performing nine sessions of resistance training. Prior to and immediately after the five-week intervention, each participant's BFLH fascicle length (FL), pennation angle (PA), muscle thickness (MT), peak isometric KF torque and Nordic eccentric strength were assessed. Post-intervention, participants performed two timed sprint sessions (10×80m) 48h apart. Blood samples and passive KF torques were collected before, immediately after, 24h and 48h after the first sprint session. RESULTS:After five-weeks of strength-training, fascicles lengthened in the ECC (p<0.001; d=2.0) and shortened in the CON group (p<0.001; d=0.92), while PA decreased for the ECC (p=0.001; d=0.52) and increased in the CON group (p<0.001; d=1.69). Nordic eccentric strength improved in both ECC (p<0.001; d=1.49) and CON (p<0.001; d=0.95) groups. No between-group differences were observed in peak isometric strength (p=0.480), passive KF torques (p=0.807), sprint performance decrements between sprint sessions (p=0.317) and creatine kinase (p=0.818). CONCLUSIONS:Despite inducing significant differences in BFLH muscle architecture, there were no significant between group differences in sprint performance decrements across two sprint sessions.