ISSUES ADDRESSED:This paper reviewed effective interventions for increasing smoking cessation among Indigenous Australians and identified gaps in evidence regarding smoking cessation interventions for Indigenous Australians. METHODS:A systematic review of academic literature and reports from government and non-government agencies published between 2001 and 2007 was conducted in early 2008. Initial findings from the review were tested using 16 in-depth interviews and two half-day workshops with practitioners and researchers working in the area of Indigenous health. RESULTS:Seven Australian programs for which there had been well-designed, rigorous evaluations were identified. A further four programs were identified that had limited evaluation information available. These studies provide evidence that face-to-face counselling or quit support used in conjunction with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is likely to increase quit rates among Indigenous people. Training Aboriginal Health Workers to provide brief smoking cessation intervention with patients is also likely to contribute to increased quit rates. Evidence regarding other interventions is more limited. CONCLUSIONS:Evidence indicates that smoking cessation strategies targeted at individuals, such as NRT and/ or counselling, may be effective smoking cessation aids for Indigenous Australians. However, there is no evidence regarding interventions likely to be effective in encouraging more Indigenous Australians to access these quit support strategies.