Poxviruses are large DNA viruses that replicate in discrete locations in the cytoplasm of infected cells called viral factories. Because the host cell DNA replication machinery is located in the nucleus, poxviruses encode many of the proteins required for their own DNA replication, including a DNA polymerase. Although many if not all of the enzymes that are required for viral DNA replication have been identified, the actual mechanism of poxvirus DNA replication remains unclear. Two monoclonal antibodies and a polyclonal antibody against vaccinia virus DNA polymerase were produced and characterized for use as tools to investigate the mechanism of virus DNA replication. Although the monoclonal antibodies were not suitable for Western blotting, the polyclonal antibody was able to detect the protein in infected cell lysates using this method. In contrast, while the polyclonal antibody did not recognize the DNA polymerase when used for immunofluorescence microscopy, the monoclonal antibodies were able to detect the polymerase in vaccinia viral factories. In addition, one of these antibodies also stained viral factories produced by cowpox and ectromelia, two closely related viruses. Finally, all three antibodies were able to immunoprecipitate vaccinia DNA polymerase from infected cell lysates. These antibodies will be useful in experiments designed to describe more fully the role of the viral DNA polymerase in DNA replication of vaccinia virus.