South Asians and Anglo Australians with heart disease in Australia Academic Article uri icon

abstract

  • Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and compare presentation and severity of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) among South Asians (SAs) and Anglo Australians (AAs). Methods A retrospective clinical case audit was conducted at a public tertiary hospital. The study population included SA and AA patients hospitalised for IHD. Baseline characteristics, evidence of diabetes and other CVD risk factors were recorded. Angiography data were also included to determine severity, and these were assessed using a modified Gensini score. Results SAs had lower mean (± s.d.) age of IHD presentation that AAs (52 ± 9 vs 55 ± 9 years, respectively; P = 0.02), as well as a lower average body mass index (BMI; 26 ± 4 vs 29 ± 6 kg/m2, respectively; P = 0.005), but a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes (57% vs 31%, respectively; P = 0.001). No significant differences were found in coronary angiography parameters. There were no significant differences in the median (interquartile range) Gensini score between SAs and AAs (43.5 (27–75) vs 44 (26.5–68.5), respectively), median vessel score (1 (1–2) vs 2 (1–3), respectively) or multivessel score (37% (33/89) vs 54% (22/41), respectively). Conclusions The findings show that in those with established IHD, cardiovascular risk factors, such as age at onset and BMI, differ between SAs and AAs and these differences should be considered in the prevention and management of IHD. What is known about the topic? There is much evidence on CVD and SAs, it being a leading cause of mortality and morbidity for this population both in their home countries and in countries they have migrated to. Studies conducted in Western nations other than Australia have suggested a difference in the risk profiles and presentations of CVD among SA migrants compared with the host populations in developed countries. Although this pattern of cardiovascular risk factors among SAs has been well documented, there is insufficient knowledge about this population, currently the largest population of incoming migrants, and CVD in the Australian setting. What does this paper add? This paper confirms that a similar pattern of CVD exists in Australia among SAs as does in other Western nations they have migrated to. The CVD pattern found in this population is that of an earlier age of onset at lower BMI compared with the host AA population, as well as a differing cardiovascular risk profile, with higher rates of type 2 diabetes and lower smoking rates. In addition, this study finds similar angiographic results for both the SAs and AAs; however, the SAs exhibit these similar angiographic patterns at younger ages. What are the implications for practitioners? SAs in Australia represent a high cardiovascular risk group and should be targeted for more aggressive screening at younger ages. Appropriate preventative strategies should also be considered bearing in mind the differing risk factors for this population, namely low BMI and high rates of type 2 diabetes. More intensive treatment strategies should also be regarded by practitioners. Importantly, both policy makers and health professionals must consider that all these strategies should be culturally targeted and tailored to this population and not assume a ‘one-size fits all’ approach.

authors

  • Gupta, S
  • Aroni, R
  • Lockwood, S
  • Jayasuriya, I
  • Teede, H

publication date

  • 2015