Glutaredoxins (Grxs) are small proteins that function as oxidoreductases with roles in deglutathionylation of proteins, reduction of antioxidants, and assembly of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster-containing enzymes. Which of the 33 Grxs in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) perform roles in Fe-S assembly in mitochondria is unknown. We have examined in detail the function of the monothiol GrxS15 in plants. Our results show its exclusive mitochondrial localization, and we are concluding it is the major or only Grx in this subcellular location. Recombinant GrxS15 has a very low deglutathionylation and dehydroascorbate reductase activity, but it binds a Fe-S cluster. Partially removing GrxS15 from mitochondria slowed whole plant growth and respiration. Native GrxS15 is shown to be especially important for lipoic acid-dependent enzymes in mitochondria, highlighting a putative role in the transfer of Fe-S clusters in this process. The enhanced effect of the toxin arsenic on the growth of GrxS15 knockdown plants compared to wild type highlights the role of mitochondrial glutaredoxin Fe-S-binding in whole plant growth and toxin tolerance.