Combined Direct Regeneration Protocols in Tissue Culture of Different Cumin Genotypes Based on Pre-existing Meristems Academic Article uri icon


  • Rapid and genotype-independent protocols for two direct in vitro morphogenesis pathways including direct shoot organogenesis from embryo and direct shoot proliferation from node have been developed in cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.). Direct regenerations occurring without passing callus phase are important since fewer somaclonal variation and genotype-dependency are likely to arise from these methods in comparison with regenerations trough callus. After embryo culture, shoots with single-cellular origin were regenerated from the meristematic zone of embryo without any intermediate callus phase. In contrast, proliferated shoots with multi-cellular origin were directly regenerated from the axillary buds (meristems) of node explants. Effects of different concentrations of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP), alpha-Naphthaleneacetic Acid (NAA) and Indole-3-kcetic Acid (IAA) on B5 medium of embryo and node cultures as well as subculture were studied in detail. In direct organogenesis pathway from embryo explant, 0.1 mg L(-1) NAA + 1 mg L(-1) IAA resulted the highest shoot regeneration response (89.5 shoots per regenerated explant), whereas 0.1 mg L(-1) BAP + 1 mg L(-1) NAA was the most effective combination in direct shoot proliferation from node explant (42 shoots per regenerated explant). BAP (cytokinin) revealed the inhibitory effect on induction of direct shoot organogenesis pathway from embryo explant, while low concentration of BAP (0.1 mg L(-1)) had positive effect on direct shoot proliferation pathway from node explant. Subculturing was not necessary for shoot multiplication and elongation in embryo culture, whereas multiplication and elongation of shoots in node culture were associated to subculture on growth regulator-free medium. In other part of study, the behavior of different cumin genotypes in direct regeneration pathways was studied. Both direct organogenesis and direct proliferation pathways were applicable to different cumin genotypes and regenerated plants were phenotypically normal. This study supports the feasibility of combined direct regenerations protocols from embryo and node of cumin in germplasm conservation by in vitro cloning and genetic improvement programs.

publication date

  • September 1, 2007