Fritillaria imperialis is an endangered bulbous plant and therefore in vitro micropropagation of this plant will have a great importance for germplasm conservation and commercial production. Petal explants, for the first time, were cultured on media containing various concentrations of plant growth regulators. In addition, the effects of cold pretreatment and light on induction and regeneration of somatic embryogenesis trough callus were studied in detail. Cold pretreatment had inhibitory effects on somatic embryogenesis pathway. Among the different combinations of 6-Bnzylaminopurine (BAP), alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-aceticacid (IAA) tested, B5 medium supplemented with 0.1 mg L(-1) BAP + 0.6 mg L(-1) NAA + 0.4 mg L(-1) IAA was the best treatment for bulblet production (6 bulblets per somatic embryogenesis callus). This research presents petal as a reliable material for micropropagation and germplasm conservation of Fritillaria imperialis.