This paper systematically reviews the effect of resistance training (RT) on glycemic control and insulin sensitivity in adults with type 2 diabetes. Twenty studies were included, with the volume, frequency and intensity of RT varying markedly. Supervised RT improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity, however, when supervision was removed compliance and glycemic control decreased. Evidence indicates the mechanisms behind the improvements to glucose tolerance require further elucidation. Although research demonstrates apparent benefits of RT for individuals with diabetes, further research is required to elucidate the minimum effective dose by describing frequency, intensity and the duration of acute and chronic improvements.