Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. Evidence suggests that miRNAs play an important role in progression, recurrence, metastasis and postoperative survival of HNSCC. Studies have investigated the utility of miRNAs as diagnostic/prognostic tools and as potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers that may improve the management and outcomes of HNSCC. The aim of this article is to review the current literature on aberrant expression profiles of miRNAs in biopsy samples of HNSCC and their role in cancer development, metastasis, prognosis and survival of these patients. This review gives an overview that miRNAs deregulation play major role in the development of HNSCC. They offer the potential to be used as biomarkers or novel therapeutic targets. Future research is required to test their use in both of these fields.